4-Microbiology

microbiology

Biology {microbiology}| can be about archaebacteria, bacteria, and other microscopic plants and animals.

4-Microbiology-Archaea

archaebacteria

Prokaryotes {archaebacteria} {extremophile} (Archaea) can live in deep sea at high pressure and heat.

Korarchaeota

Earliest archaebacteria {Korarchaeota} evolved into Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota.

Nanoarchaeota

Nanoarchaeum equitans {nanoarchae} {Nanoarchaeota} has 500,000-base DNA, has smaller cells than mycoplasmas, and lives in high temperature, and no oxygen. Perhaps, it is symbiotic or parasitic.

4-Microbiology-Archaea-Crenarchaeota

Crenarchaeota

Later archaebacteria {Crenarchaeota} evolved from Korarchaeota. The oldest Crenarchaeota are Thermoproteales, then Sulfolobales, then Desulfurococcales, then Crenarchaeales, and then Caldisphaerales.

sulfolobus

Thermophiles {sulfolobus} can metabolize sulfur.

4-Microbiology-Archaea-Euryarchaeota

Euryarchaeota

Later archaebacteria {Euryarchaeota} evolved from Korarchaeota. The oldest Euryarchaeota are Thermoplasmatales, then Thermococcales, then Methanopyrales, then Methanosarcinales, then Methanomicrobiales, then Mathanococcales, then Methanobacteriales, then Halobacteriales, and then Archaeoglobi. Euryarchaeota include thermophiles.

haloferax

Archaebacteria {haloferax} can metabolize halogens and iron.

halophile

Archaebacteria {halophile} can metabolize halogens.

methanogen

Archaebacteria {methanogen}| can produce and use methane, live in oxygen-free environments, have unusual cell walls, have unusual lipids, and have different RNA nucleotides. They can be spheres or rods and are half of all Archaea.

Archaebacteria {methanobacterium} {methanococcus} can use methane.

Methanogens use hydrogen gas, carbon dioxide or acetate, phosphorus, and nitrogen. They make methane.

methane

With no oxygen, methane does not break down quickly. With no oxygen, ammonia breaks down by ultraviolet light. If methane concentration is higher than carbon dioxide, methane molecules polymerize.

carbon dioxide

With no oxygen, carbon dioxide and iron react to make iron-carbonate siderite. Early-Earth air carbon dioxide was less than eight times current concentration, because rocks do not have siderite.

mycoplasm

Very small bacteria-like cells {mycoplasm}| can cause disease, such as mycoplasmic pneumonia. Archaebacteria include the mycoplasm Thermoplasma.

thermophile

Euryarchaeota include one-celled organisms {hyperthermophilic bacteria} {thermophile}| {thermoacidophile} that live in 180-C ocean vents and use halogens, methane, and/or iron. Thermophiles {archaeoglobus} {aquifex} can grow at 95 C.

4-Microbiology-Bacteria

bacteria

One-celled organisms {bacteria}| can have rigid cell walls, surrounded by polysaccharide capsules.

reproduction

Bacteria have one chromosome. Bacteria reproduce asexually by fission. Some bacteria form spores. Bacteria can have zero, one, or two no-membrane nuclei.

metabolism

Bacteria have no mitochondria. Endoplasmic reticulum has no ribosomes.

tail

Bacteria can have flagella.

types

Bacteria can be parasites, use fermentation, or be saprophytes.

methane

Anaerobic bacteria can produce methane gas.

dormancy in bacteria

Bacteria can lose water, shrink, and stop metabolism {dormancy, bacteria}|.

Gram stain

Bacterial classification can depend on whether stain {Gram stain}| colors cell walls {Gram-positive bacteria} or not {Gram-negative bacteria}. Gram-negative bacteria include Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii.

4-Microbiology-Bacteria-Products

bacteriophytochrome

Deinococcus radiodurans proteins {bacteriophytochrome}| can control gene expression, absorb red light, and fluoresce infrared light.

SOS response

Stressed bacteria first try to repair damaged DNA {SOS response}. Then they derepress genes that make proteins that cause high mutation rates. Bacterial cells can attach RecA protein to single-stranded DNA, which splits LexA regulatory protein, which derepresses genes that cause DNA mutations, which alter drug targets.

type IV secretion system

Gene regions can make secretion proteins {type IV secretion system} (TFSS). TFSS can inject protein toxins into host cells. Helicobacter has CagA gene, which makes CagA protein. Helicobacter injects CagA protein into stomach-lining cells. CagA protein increases stomach-cancer probability. CagA changes and affects cell shape, secretion, and signaling. For example, host cells make cytokines.

4-Microbiology-Bacteria-Groups

culture of bacteria

Bacteria can grow in tubes or on plates {culture, bacteria} {bacterial culture}.

Hfq protein

RNA-binding proteins {Hfq protein} can have more sensitivity in cultures with little fluid motion {low fluid shear}.

biofilm

Bacteria cluster and attach to surfaces to form intercellular matrix {biofilm}|. They exchange signals and proliferate into microcolonies. Matrix can differentiate into different regions. Cells can leave to form new colonies. Substituted furanones block biofilm formation and break up existing ones, because they are similar to acylated homoserine lactones and mimic bacterial signals.

4-Microbiology-Bacteria-DNA Transfer

conjugation in bacteria

Bacteria pylus allows DNA transfer {conjugation, bacteria}|.

pylus

Bacteria have flagella-like parts {pylus} for conjugation.

transduction

DNA from one cell can enter and become part of another cell {transduction}|.

4-Microbiology-Bacteria-Signaling

autoinducer

Bacteria exchange chemical signals {autoinducer} (AI-1), using special receptors, to determine bacteria density by quorum sensing. Autoinducers help make biofilms, make spores, regulate reproduction, release toxin, and emit light. Autoinducers can exchange boron sugars {autoinducer two} (AI-2) with other species. Gram-negative bacteria use signals {acylated homoserine lactone} (ACL). Gram-positive bacteria use peptide signals.

quorum sensing

Bacteria exchange chemical-signal autoinducers, using special receptors, to determine bacteria density {quorum sensing}. If density passes threshold, bacteria make virulence-factor proteins that harm hosts. Bacteria can then make biofilms.

virulence factor

If bacteria density passes threshold, bacteria make proteins {virulence factor} that harm hosts.

4-Microbiology-Bacteria-Kinds

microbe

Organisms can have one cell or be very small {microbe}|.

nanobe

Microbes {nanobe} can be 20 to 150 nanometers diameter, have inner and outer layers, have DNA, and have tendril-like colonies.

actinomycete

Soil bacteria {actinomycete} can make abyssomicin antibiotic.

myxobacteria

Soil bacteria {myxobacteria} include Stigmatella aurantiaca, which makes myxochromide.

saprophyte

Bacteria {saprophyte}| can use putrefaction to get food.

Pelagibacter ubique

Bacteria {Pelagibacter} {SAR11 gene} can have no junk DNA and use ocean carbon. Pelagibacter is in all oceans at all depths. Total mass is more than all fish. Algae use its products. If species have large populations, they can minimize DNA.

pleuromona

Bacteria {pleuromona} can have only 300 to 1000 genes.

rickettsia

Small bacteria-like cells {rickettsia} can grow in other, mostly insect, cells. Rickettsia includes typhus and Rocky Mountain spotted fever, but most rickettsias are harmless.

Wolbachia

Bacteria {Wolbachia} can kill fruitfly eggs and live three weeks.

4-Microbiology-Bacteria-Kinds-Bacillus

bacillus

Rod-like bacteria {bacillus}| include anthrax, diphtheria, typhoid, tuberculosis, and leprosy bacteria.

Chlamydomonas

Bacteria {Chlamydomonas} can have two front flagella, which flex and extend to pull it through water. Flagella have ten microtubule pairs, with one pair in center. Outside nine slide along central pair. Front rhodopsin-like pigment has maximum sensitivity to blue-green light. As in rhodopsin, retinal is inside the seven membrane loops.

E. coli

Bacteria {E. coli bacteria} can inhabit human intestine.

sensation

E. coli can sense sugars, amino acids, toxic ions, and light, using at least twelve different membrane and cell-wall protein receptors. They can compare previous sense qualities to subsequent sense qualities over several seconds, to establish gradients. Gradients change signal strengths by varying loop structures inside receptor proteins.

Receptors signal to G-proteins, which eventually send to six flagella. Signals combine at flagella to move bacterium in same direction or stop, which causes tumbling and random direction. Movements thus find food or escape poisons.

flagella

Flagella use hydrogen-ion gradients to turn eight ratchets at 6000 rpm. Flagella can spiral clockwise or counterclockwise. Flagella can align parallel or radiate from cell in all directions. Aligning and spiraling in same rotation causes forward motion. Radiating, and spiraling in opposite rotation, causes stopping.

halobacteria

Bacteria {halobacteria} (Halobacterium salinarium) can have flagella. Like rhodopsin, retinal pigment lies inside seven loops through membrane. It has maximum sensitivity to orange light, because Halobacterium lives in salt marshes.

pseudomonas

Non-invasive gram-negative rod bacteria {pseudomonas} can cause urinary tract infections, skin infections, and other infections.

4-Microbiology-Bacteria-Kinds-Coccus

coccus

Spherical bacteria {coccus}| can be streptococcus, staphylococcus, or single spheres, such as pneumonia and gonorrhea.

staphylococcus

Spherical bacteria {staphylococcus} can form sphere clumps. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has antibiotic resistance to beta-lactams, by making enzyme that splits antibiotic. Vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA) has antibiotic resistance to beta-lactams, by five-gene cassettes that alter cell-wall receptors.

streptococcus

Spherical bacteria {streptococcus} can form sphere chains.

4-Microbiology-Bacteria-Kinds-Spirochete

spirochete

Spiral-corkscrew bacteria {spirochete} include syphilis.

borrelia

Spiral bacteria {borrelia} can cause Lyme disease.

Helicobacter pylori

Spiral bacteria {Helicobacter pylori} can live in high-acidity human stomachs, cause peptic ulcers, trigger stomach cancers, have cylindrical bodies, and have four flagellae. They can protect against acid reflux and esophagus cancer.

genes

Genome has 1,700,000 bases, has 1550 genes, and varies by 6%. CagA gene makes CagA protein, which increases stomach-cancer probability. CagA gene region makes proteins for type IV secretion system (TFSS). TFSS can inject protein toxins into host cells, and Helicobacter injects CagA protein. In host cells, CagA changes and affects shape, secretion, and signaling. Host cells make cytokines. VacA gene makes VacA protein, which causes vacuoles and coats helper T cells.

spirilla

Spiral-coil bacteria {spirilla} include cholera.

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Date Modified: 2015.0704

Description: 4-Microbiology